MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

 

Mycorrhizal Fungi colonize on the plants roots and are an important component of the soil life and chemistry. They increase the surface absorbing area of the plant's roots 100 to 1000 times. They release powerful enzymes into the soil that dissolve hard to capture nutrients to greatly improve the plants ability to access soil resources. Plants benefit from easier access to phoshates, carbohydrates, nitrogen, iron, and other "tightly bound" nutrients. As a result, the plants become more drought tolerant and disease resistant. Mycorrhizal Fungi forman intricate web that captures and assimilates nutrients, conserving nutrient capital in the soil. More then 90% of plants species in natural areas form a symbiotic relationship with this beneficial "MYCOR"-"RHIZA" fungi.

Commerical clients report a 30% reduction in water use and up to 70% reduction in nutrients after regular useage of Synergy.

ARTHROPODS

WHAT DO ANTHROPODS DO?

 

Anthropods increase the surface area accessible to microbial attack by shredding dead plant residue and burrowing into course wood debris. Athhropods act like can-openers and greatly increase the rate of decomposition. Arthropods ingest decaying plant materials to eat the bacteria and fungi on the surface of the organic material.

As Anthrpods graze on bacteria and fungi, they stimulate the growth of mycorrhizae and other fungi, and the decomposition of organic matter.

Bacteria have limited mobility in soil and a competitor is likely to be closer to a nutrient source. Arthropods help out by distributing nutrients through the soil, and by carrying bacteria on their exterskeleton and through their digestive system. By more throughly mixing microbes with their food, anthropods enhance organic matter decomosition.

Some Anthropods (Specialists) feed only on a single type of prey. Other Arthropods (Generalists) feed on a wide variety of pest. A population can only be maintained between pest outbreaks if there is a constant source of non-prey to eat. Synergy can replace these arthropods between constant sources.

 

 

WHAT'S IN SYNERGY ?

BENEFICIAL NEMATODES

WHAT DO NEMATODES DO?

 

Nematodes are non-segmented worms with tapered ends typically 1/500 of an inch in diameter and 1/20 of an inch in lenght. They have a head and a tail with a well develoded central nervous and fertility system with a complete digestive system, so they are considered the most primitive animal. Nematodes are aquatic organisms so they require adequate soil moisture to move in the soil. Beneficial Nematodes serve as biological pest control agents in managed systems and others regulate the natural ecoststem and soil nutrient cycling. Some feed on algae and other are grazers that feed on bacteria and fungi and some feed on other nematodes.

Nematodes use a stylet or tooth to puncture and suck out cell contents or ingest cells whole. Bacterial-feeders consume bacteria through a stoma.

Fungal-feeders feed by punchuring the cell wall of fungi using a small slender stylet to suck out the internal contents. Predatory Nematodes eat all types of nematodes and protozoa using a stylet. Omnivores eat a variety of organisms including bateria, fungus, protozoa, other nematodes and roots. Root-feeders are plant parasites feeding on roots.

Nematodes are inportant in mineralizing, or releasing, nutrients. When Nematodes eat bacteria or fungi, ammonium is released. Small root consumption by nematodes may stimulate plant root growth, increasing root biomass. Nematodes grazing may control the balance between bacteria and fungi.  

Agricultural soils generally support less then 100 nematodes in each teaspoon of soil. Grasslands may support to 500 nematodes and forest soild generalyy several hundred per teaspoon.The proportion of bateria-feeding and fungi-feeding nematodes is related to the amount of bateria and fungi in the soil. Less disturbed soils contain more nematodes. Because they are so small and live in water, changes in nematode populations reflect changes in soil microenviroments.

 

 

PROTOZOA

PROTOZOA FEEDING

ON FUNGI

BATERIA BEING

EATEN BY PROTOZA

PROTOZOA GROUPE

WHAT DO PROTOZOA DO?

 

Protoza are single-celled animals that feed primarily on bacteria, but also eat other protozoa, mold spores, powdery mildrew, soluble organic matter and fungi. They are from 1/5000 to 1/50 of an inch in diameter. Protozoa are aquatic and live and move in soil water films and water-filled pores of aggregates.

Flagellates are the smallest and use one to four whip-like flagella to move. Flagellates feed on bacteria and are the most mumerous of the protozoas. Ciliates are the largest and least numerous and move by hair-like cilia. They eat other protozoa and bacteria. A single ciliate may consume as many as ten thousand bacteria per day. Amoebae are also large and move via a temporary foot or "pseudopod". Amoebas live in the rhizosphere and at the root surface where they graze on bacteria. Protozoa are found in greatest abundance near the surface, mostly in the first six inches of soil. 

BENEFICIAL BACTERIA (BT) 

Bacillus thuringiensis (BT)

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a naturally occurring bacterial disease of insects. These bacteria are the active ingredient in some insecticides.

Bt insecticides are most commonly used against some leaf- and needle-feeding caterpillars. Recently, strains have been produced that affect certain fly larvae, such as mosquitoes, and larvae of leaf beetles.

Bt is considered safe to people and nontarget species, such as wildlife. Some formulations can be used on essentially all food Crops.

 

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is used in insecticides. Its unusual properties that make it useful for pest control in certain situations. Bt is a naturally occurring bacterium common in soils throughout the world. Several strains can infect and kill insects. Because of this property, Bt has been developed for insect control. At present, Bt is the only "microbial insecticide" in widespread use.

The insecticidal activity of Bt was first discovered in 1911. However, it was not commercially available until the 1950s. In recent years, there has been tremendous renewed interest in Bt. Several new products have been developed, largely because of the safety associated with Bt-based insecticides.

 

Unlike typical nerve-poison insecticides, Bt acts by producing proteins (delta-endotoxin, the "toxic crystal") that reacts with the cells of the gut lining of susceptible insects. These Bt proteins paralyze the digestive system, and the infected insect stops feeding within hours. Bt-affected insects generally die from starvation, which can take several days.

Occasionally, the bacteria enter the insect's blood and reproduce within the insect. However, in most insects it is the reaction of the protein crystal that is lethal to the insect. Even dead bacteria containing the proteins are effective insecticides.

The most commonly used strain of Bt (kurstaki strain) will kill only The leaf- and needle-feeding caterpillars. In the past decade, Bt strains have been developed that control certain types of fly larvae (israelensis strain, or Bti). These are widely used against larvae of mosquitoes, black flies and fungus gnats.

More recently, strains have been developed with activity against some leaf beetles, such as the Colorado potato beetle and elm leaf beetle (san diego strain, tenebrionis strain). Among the various Bt strains, insecticidal activity is specific. That is, Bt strains developed for mosquito larvae do not affect caterpillars. Development of Bt products is an active area and many manufacturers produce a variety of products. Effectiveness of the various formulations may differ.

The specific activity of Bt generally is considered highly beneficial. Unlike most insecticides, Bt insecticides do not have a broad spectrum of activity, so they do not kill beneficial insects. This includes the natural enemies of insects (predators and parasites), as well as beneficial pollinators, such as honeybees. Therefore, Bt integrates well with other natural controls. For example, in Colorado, Bt to control corn borers in field corn has been stimulated by its ability to often avoid later spider mite problems. Mite outbreaks commonly result following destruction of their natural enemies by less selective treatments.

Perhaps the major advantage is that Bt is essentially nontoxic to people, pets and wildlife. This high margin of safety recommends its use on food Crops or in other sensitive sites where pesticide use can cause adverse effects.

Insects Controlled by Bt

Kurstaki strain (Biobit, Dipel, MVP, Steward, Thuricide, etc.):

  • Vegetable insects

  • Cabbage worm (cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm, diamondback moth, etc.).

  • Tomato and tobacco hornworm.

  • Field and forage crop insects

  • European corn borer (granular formulations have given good control of first generation corn borers).

  • Alfalfa caterpillar, alfalfa webworm.

  • Fruit crop insects

  • Leafroller.

  • Achemon sphinx.

  • Tree and shrub insects

  • Tent caterpillar.

  • Fall webworm.

  • Leafroller.

  • Red-humped caterpillar.

  • Spiny elm caterpillar.

  • Western spruce budworm.

  • Pine budworm.

  • Pine butterfly.

Israelensis strains (Vectobac, Mosquito Dunks, Gnatrol, Bactimos, etc.)

  • Mosquito.

  • Black fly.

  • Fungus gnat.

San diego/tenebrionis strains (Trident, M-One, M-Trak, Foil, Novodor, etc.)

  • Colorado potato beetle.

  • Elm leaf beetle.

  • Cottonwood leaf beetle.

 

INGREDIENTS

Compost, Worm Castings, Humus, Decomposed Wood Chips

Kelp Power (Ascophyllum Nodosum),Alfalfa Flour, Amaranth Flour,Oat Flour, Quinoa Flour, Spelt Flour, Insect Frass

BENEFICIAL MICRO-ORGANISMS

The following report is a typical batch report for Synergy Compost Tea

Additional report concerning Nutrient Levels, Heavy Metals, Pathogens, E-Coli and Bacteria are available upon request

Following is information on the Microorganisms

one would typically find in a high quality Compost Tea

Nematode Looking

for food in a mite nest

Found It!